A Pilot Example of Maximizing Conservation Measures: Using Avoidance, Minimization, and Offsetting in National Scale Pesticide Consultations

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A Pilot Example of Maximizing Conservation Measures: Using Avoidance, Minimization, and Offsetting in National Scale Pesticide Consultations

Reasonable and prudent measures (RPMs) and reasonable and prudent alternatives (RPAs) have been the primary mechanism utilized to date by the consulting agencies in pesticide Biological Opinions. However, the full suite of conservation measures (avoidance, minimization, and offsetting) have not been applied. Here we show how we developed an effects analysis to quantify residual, unavoidable impacts following avoidance and minimization measures, thereby improving the proposed project action in ESA section 7 consultation(s), and including the use of offsets to address residual, unavoidable effects to listed species.